How to Become a Mental Health Counselor

The journey to becoming a Mental Health Counselor is an enriching path that leads to a rewarding career. Mental health counselors play a vital role in providing mental health support and helping individuals, groups, and communities manage various mental health conditions. This article teaches you how to become a licensed mental health counselor and provides valuable information about the education, licensure requirements, and many potential career specializations within the field.

Consider an online counseling program: Learn more.
Online Counseling Programs At Walden
Search More Schools

It’s clear that mental health concerns are on the rise with more individuals investing time and energy into mental health wellness. For this reason, the role of Mental Health Counselors has never been more vital. These dedicated professionals play a crucial role in helping people navigate the complexities of their emotional and psychological well-being.

If you’ve ever considered a career in mental health counseling, it’s a job filled with compassion, growth, and the opportunity to make a profound impact on people’s lives. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the steps and requirements to become a Mental Health Counselor, providing you with invaluable insights and a roadmap to success in this fulfilling profession.

Whether you’re a recent graduate exploring career options or someone looking to transition into a more meaningful vocation, the path to becoming a counselor in mental health is rewarding but requires a few steps. Let’s dive into the world of mental health counseling and discover how you can become a Mental Health Counselor.

What is the Role of a Mental Health Counselor?

Mental Health Counselors, often referred to as LMHCs if they are licensed, are professionals who provide vital support to individuals dealing with emotional, psychological, and behavioral challenges. Their role is multifaceted, encompassing various responsibilities aimed at helping clients achieve mental and emotional well-being.

Mental health counselors provide treatment and support for a range of mental health disorders and emotional problems, including:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Grief
  • Low self-esteem
  • Stress
  • Suicidal thoughts

In addition to addressing these conditions, mental health counselors also employ a variety of therapy techniques to help individuals, couples, families, and groups resolve relationship problems and achieve optimum mental health.

Assessment and Diagnosis

One of the primary roles of a mental health counselor is to assess clients’ mental health. They engage in in-depth conversations and use various assessment tools to understand clients' thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Through this process, they can diagnose mental health conditions and develop personalized treatment plans.

Counseling and Therapy

Mental Health Counselors offer counseling and therapy sessions to clients, providing a safe and confidential space to discuss their concerns. They use evidence-based therapeutic techniques to help clients cope with issues such as anxiety, depression, trauma, addiction, and relationship problems.

Treatment Planning

Based on their assessments and clients’ goals, mental health counselors create comprehensive treatment plans. These plans outline the therapeutic interventions and strategies to address specific mental health challenges, with the ultimate aim of improving clients’ overall well-being.


LMHCs play a crucial role in empowering their clients. They offer guidance, emotional support, and coping mechanisms to help individuals build resilience and regain control over their lives. This empowerment can be instrumental in clients’ journey toward recovery.


Beyond individual counseling, mental health counselors often engage in advocacy efforts to promote mental health awareness and destigmatize mental illness. They may also provide psychoeducation to clients and their families, offering valuable insights into mental health conditions and treatment options.

Crisis Intervention

In critical situations, such as suicidal ideation or severe emotional distress, mental health counselors are trained to provide immediate crisis intervention. Their skills help clients navigate emergencies while connecting them with appropriate resources.

Consider a Featured Online Counseling Program

☰ For detailed degree information, view the guides to:
Online CACREP Accredited programs | Online MPCAC Accredited programs

Common Steps for Becoming a Mental Health Counselor

Becoming a Mental Health Counselor is a structured process that requires dedication and commitment. To help you navigate this rewarding journey, here’s an overview of the common steps you’ll need to take:

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree in a Behavioral, Social Science or Psychology Program

The first step on your journey to becoming a Mental Health Counselor is to earn a bachelor’s degree in counseling or a relevant field. Typically, individuals pursuing this path opt for bachelor's degrees in behavioral science, social science, or psychology. These undergraduate programs lay the foundation for your future studies and career in mental health counseling.

During your bachelor’s program, you’ll learn fundamental concepts related to human behavior, emotions, thoughts, and relationships. Coursework may cover subjects such as abnormal psychology, human development, and research methods. Additionally, you’ll develop critical thinking and communication skills, which are invaluable when working with clients as a counselor.

Furthermore, your undergraduate experience provides an opportunity to explore your specific interests within the field of mental health. Whether you’re drawn to clinical psychology, counseling psychology, or another related area, your bachelor’s program can help you identify your passions and lay the groundwork for your future educational and career endeavors.

Evaluate Your Notable Skills and Abilities Within the Counseling Field

Before becoming a Mental Health Counselor, it’s important to take a thoughtful inventory of your skills and abilities within the counseling field. Here are some essential skills:

Empathy is a cornerstone skill for any aspiring counselor. The ability to understand and connect with the emotional experiences of others is vital for establishing trust and rapport with clients.
Active listening is another critical skill. Effective counselors must listen attentively to their clients’ concerns, without judgment or interruption. Consider whether you have a knack for absorbing information, discerning underlying emotions, and responding thoughtfully to facilitate productive conversations.
Self-awareness is key in counseling. Reflect on your own emotional resilience and self-regulation abilities. Can you manage your own emotions effectively, especially in challenging or emotionally charged situations?
Communication skills are essential when conveying complex ideas and therapeutic strategies in a clear, compassionate, and non-confrontational manner. Assess your capacity for effective verbal and non-verbal communication, as this skill is paramount in helping clients understand and implement positive changes in their lives.

Earn a Master’s Degree in Mental Health Counseling

One of the pivotal steps on the path to becoming a Mental Health Counselor is earning a master’s degree in mental health counseling or a closely related field. This advanced degree equips aspiring counselors with the knowledge, skills, and expertise they need to provide effective therapy and support to individuals facing mental health challenges.

During your master’s program, you’ll learn the theories, methodologies, and ethical principles that underpin the field of mental health counseling. Courses may cover topics such as counseling techniques, assessment and diagnosis, group therapy, and psychopathology.

Additionally, you’ll likely engage in supervised clinical experiences, allowing you to apply theoretical knowledge in real-world counseling settings. These hands-on experiences are invaluable for developing your counseling skills and gaining practical insight into the complexities of mental health issues.

Gain Internship and Post-Graduate Experience

Internships and practicums provide you with the opportunity to work directly with clients and refine your counseling skills. You’ll gain valuable experience in conducting assessments, developing treatment plans, and delivering therapy to individuals facing a wide range of mental health challenges. This exposure to diverse client populations and clinical scenarios is instrumental in building your confidence and competence as a counselor.

Post-graduate experience requirements for LMHC licensure vary by state or region, but they typically involve accumulating a specified number of supervised clinical hours. During this period, you’ll receive ongoing feedback and guidance from your supervisors, helping you further develop your counseling expertise. This phase of your journey is not only a professional requirement but also a critical period for honing your skills.

Pass Required Exams for Counseling Licensure

As you work toward becoming a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC), passing the required exams is a pivotal step in achieving full licensure. These examinations are designed to assess your knowledge, skills, and competence in the field of mental health counseling, ensuring that you are well-prepared to provide effective support to clients.

The specific exams you’ll need to take can vary depending on your state or region, as each has its own licensing board and requirements. However, a common requirement is the National Counselor Examination for Licensure and Certification (NCE), administered by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC). This comprehensive exam covers a wide range of counseling topics, including assessment, counseling techniques, ethical standards, and more. Passing the NCE demonstrates your proficiency in the core competencies expected of a professional counselor.

In addition to the NCE, some states may have additional exams or requirements, such as jurisprudence exams that test your knowledge of state-specific laws and regulations related to counseling.

Finish Any Remaining State Licensure Requirements

After successfully passing the required licensing exams, make sure you complete any remaining state-specific licensure requirements. These requirements can vary widely from one state or region to another, and it’s crucial to thoroughly understand and fulfill them to obtain your LMHC license.

Common state-specific requirements may include additional supervised clinical hours, post-graduate supervision, coursework, background checks, and jurisprudence exams. Consult your state’s counseling licensing board or regulatory authority to ensure you are aware of all the specific requirements and deadlines.

Apply for Licensure

Once you have completed all the necessary steps, including obtaining the required education, gaining supervised clinical experience, and passing the relevant exams, it’s time to apply for licensure as a Mental Health Counselor. This is a significant milestone in your journey, as it officially recognizes your readiness to practice as a professional in the field.

The application process for licensure can vary depending on your state or region, but it typically involves submitting a comprehensive application package. This package may include your educational transcripts, verification of supervised clinical hours, exam scores, background checks, and any other required documentation. Be sure to carefully review the application instructions provided by your state’s counseling licensing board to ensure that you include all necessary materials and meet any deadlines.

Upon successful completion of the application process and approval by the licensing board, you will be granted your LMHC license. This license signifies your readiness to provide mental health counseling services independently.

Earn Additional Mental Health Counseling Certifications

After working for a while in the field, you may want to further enhance your qualifications and expertise by earning additional mental health counseling certifications.

There are various specialty certifications available in the field of mental health counseling, each focusing on specific populations or therapeutic approaches. For instance, you might pursue certification in areas such as trauma counseling, addiction counseling, family therapy, or child and adolescent counseling.

These certifications typically require additional coursework, supervised experience, and, in some cases, passing an exam. By earning these certifications, you not only deepen your knowledge and skills but also signal to potential clients and employers your dedication to providing specialized and high-quality counseling services.

Continue Your Education to Stay Up to Date on the Counseling and Mental Health Field

Staying committed to your education is essential for staying updated on the latest developments in the field. It ensures you remain well-informed about emerging therapeutic techniques, ethical standards, and relevant research to provide the most effective care to your clients.

Continuing your education by earning a post-graduate degree or post-graduate certifications can open doors to a broader range of career options. They may make you a more attractive candidate for positions in specialized clinics, schools, or government agencies. Additionally, they can potentially lead to increased earning potential and the opportunity to work with a more diverse clientele.

How Long Does It Take to Become a Licensed Mental Health Counselor?

The process of becoming a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC) is a rewarding one, but it is also a path that requires dedication and time. It takes typically six to eight years or more to become an LMHC. There are various factors that can impact how long it takes to become a LMHC, including your educational background, the state or region in which you intend to practice, and the pace at which you complete each step.

Earning a bachelor’s degree in a relevant discipline typically takes around four years. Following this, a master’s program in mental health counseling generally takes an additional two to three years to complete — including coursework and supervised clinical experience.

After completing your master’s degree, you’ll need to accumulate supervised post-graduate hours, which typically takes an additional two years or more, depending on your state’s requirements. These hours are essential for building practical counseling skills and gaining real-world experience. Once you’ve completed your supervised hours, you’ll need to pass the licensing exam — or exams— which may require a few months of preparation.

Related: How Long Does it Take to Become a Counselor?

Mental Health Counselor Salary and Job Outlook

Mental health counseling is a profession driven by compassion, empathy, and a commitment to helping individuals overcome emotional and psychological challenges. It offers not only the reward of making a positive impact on people’s lives but also a stable and potentially fulfilling career path. Here’s what you can expect when it comes to salary and job outlook:


The salary of a mental health counselor can vary significantly based on several factors, including experience, location, education, and work setting. On average, mental health counselors earn a competitive salary that reflects the level of expertise and dedication required for this profession. 

According to data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), as of 2022, the median annual wage for Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, and Mental Health Counselors was approximately $49,700. The highest 10% earned more than $82,700. 

It’s important to note that the earning potential in this field can increase with experience and specialization. Those with advanced degrees, certifications, and years of practice in a particular area of counseling may command higher salaries. Additionally, geographic location plays a significant role in salary variations, as mental health counselors in metropolitan areas tend to earn more than those in rural settings. 

Job Outlook

The job outlook for mental health counselors is expected to grow by 18% between 2022 and 2032, according to the BLS. The increasing awareness of mental health issues, reduced stigma surrounding seeking counseling services, and a growing aging population all contributed to this positive job outlook.

Mental health counselors find employment in a variety of settings, including mental health clinics, schools, hospitals, and private practices. They are also increasingly being integrated into primary care settings to provide holistic healthcare services. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic further highlighted the importance of mental health services, potentially driving even more demand for mental health counselors in the future.


Types of Mental Health Specializations

Mental health professionals often pursue specialized areas of practice to better serve the unique needs of their clients. These specializations allow counselors to develop expertise in specific aspects of mental health and provide targeted support. Here are some common mental health specializations.

Substance Abuse Counselors

Substance abuse counselors specialize in helping individuals who are struggling with addictions to substances like drugs and alcohol. They provide support during the recovery process and offer counseling services to the individual as well as their families. Substance abuse counselors may work in outpatient centers, residential treatment facilities, or as part of a private practice. Data from Payscale shows that, as of March 2023, the median salary for substance abuse counselors was around $43,400 per year.

Degree Options:

Behavior Disorder Counselors

Behavior disorder counselors, often known as behavior analysts or behavior therapists, work with clients to manage behavior problems. These issues often relate to mental health conditions such as ADHD, autism, and oppositional defiant disorder. These professionals might work in schools, mental health centers, or private practice, and they employ techniques such as cognitive behavioral therapy to help clients manage and modify problematic behaviors. According to Payscale, the median annual salary for this occupation was approximately $43,300 as of March 2021.

Licensed Mental Health Counselors (LMHC)

LMHCs are qualified to provide a range of mental health services, such as group therapy or psychotherapy. They work with individuals, couples, families, and groups to address and treat emotional and mental disorders. This is often a generalist credential, though LMHCs may choose to specialize in areas such as trauma, substance abuse, or child and adolescent mental health. Payscale reports that the median annual earnings for LMHCs in March 2023 were around $53,300.

Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselors (LCMHC)

LCMHC are mental health professionals who have met specific educational, examination, and clinical experience requirements beyond the typical scope of a general counselor. They are skilled in providing a high level of care to individuals, families, and groups dealing with complex mental health issues. The median salary for LCMHCs in April 2023 was approximately $49,300, according to Payscale.

Licensed Professional Counselors (LPC)

LPCs are very similar to LMHCs, and, in some states, the only difference between them is the type of license the state provides. In some cases, LPCs have a broader focus. While they are licensed to provide mental health counseling, they may focus on other areas of the field, such as school or career counseling. According to data from Payscale, the median annual salary for LPCs in March 2023 was around $53,700.

Marriage and Family Therapists (MFT)

MFTs specialize in helping individuals within the context of family relationships. They may work with couples, families, or individuals dealing with issues that affect the family unit, such as addiction, divorce, or grief. According to the BLS, the median pay for marriage and family therapists as of May 2021 was $49,880 per year.

Related Degrees:

Child and Adolescent Therapists

These therapists specialize in working with children and teenagers and address mental health issues that are unique to these age groups. This can include things like developmental disorders, academic and social struggles, and family issues. Child therapists earned median salaries of approximately $47,200 per year as of March 2023, according to Payscale.

Trauma and Crisis Counselors

These professionals specialize in helping individuals deal with the mental and emotional aftermath of traumatic events, such as natural disasters, violence, or personal loss. Payscale reports that the median annual salary for crisis counselors was around $45,300 in March 2023.

Geriatric Mental Health Counselors

Geriatric mental health counselors work specifically with older adults and their families, addressing mental health issues that can arise later in life, such as depression, anxiety, and changes associated with dementia or other cognitive declines.

Each of these specializations offers a unique opportunity to support individuals facing a variety of mental health challenges. By pursuing additional training and certification in these areas, mental health counselors can provide specialized care that best meets their clients’ needs.

Mental Health Counseling FAQ

Mental health counseling is a profession dedicated to helping individuals navigate the complexities of their emotional and psychological well-being. Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about this field:

What Skills Do Mental Health Counselors Need?

Mental health counselors require a diverse set of skills, including empathy, active listening, communication, and problem-solving. They must be skilled in conducting assessments, developing treatment plans, and using evidence-based therapeutic techniques to assist clients. Additionally, cultural competence, ethical awareness, and the ability to maintain boundaries are crucial in this profession.

What Qualifications Do You Need to Become a Licensed Mental Health Counselor?

To become a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC), you typically need a master’s degree in mental health counseling or a related field, followed by supervised clinical experience. You must also pass state-specific licensing exams and meet any additional requirements set by your state or region’s counseling licensing board.

Do You Need a Master’s Degree to Become a Mental Health Counselor?

Yes, a master’s degree is typically required to become a licensed mental health counselor. This degree should be in mental health counseling or a related field. This advanced education provides the necessary knowledge and skills to offer effective counseling services.

What are the Licensing Requirements to Become a Mental Health Counselor?

The licensing requirements for mental health counselors can vary considerably by state. Typically, these requirements include earning a master’s degree in counseling or a closely related field, completing a specific number of supervised clinical hours, and passing a state-recognized exam. However, the exact details and the nature of these requirements can differ from one jurisdiction to another. Let’s consider the licensing processes in California and Texas as examples.


In California, the title for licensed mental health counselors is Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC). According to the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, these are the steps to become an LPCC in California:

  1. Earn a Master’s Degree: You must earn a 60-credit hour master’s degree in counseling or psychotherapy from an accredited institution. The program must cover specific areas outlined by the state, including counseling and psychotherapeutic theories and techniques, human growth and development, career development theories and techniques, group counseling theories and techniques, assessment, among others.
  2. Complete Supervised Experience: Before licensure, you must complete a total of 3,000 hours of post-degree supervised professional experience. This experience must be accrued over a minimum of 104 weeks.
  3. Pass Examinations: Candidates must pass the National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Examination (NCMHCE) and the California Law and Ethics Exam.

After completing these requirements, you can apply for licensure through the California Board of Behavioral Sciences.


In Texas, the title for licensed mental health counselors is Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC). The Texas Behavioral Health Executive Council outlines these steps to become an LPC in Texas:

  1. Earn a Master’s Degree: The degree must be obtained from an accredited institution and must consist of at least 60 semester hours of graduate coursework in counseling.
  2. Complete Supervised Experience: You must complete a postgraduate internship of 3,000 hours, with at least 1,500 hours of direct client contact. Of these hours, at least 100 must be under direct supervision.
  3. Pass Examinations: You need to pass the National Counselor Examination (NCE) or the National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Examination (NCMHCE), as well as the Texas Jurisprudence Exam.

Once you’ve finished each of these stages, you can submit a licensure application through the Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors.

These are examples from only two states, so it’s important to research the specific requirements in your own state or the state where you wish to practice. Additionally, keep in mind that the licensure process can change, so it’s crucial to stay updated on the current requirements.

Where do Mental Health Counselors Work?

Mental health counselors work in a variety of settings, including mental health centers, hospitals, schools, correctional facilities, and private practices. They may also provide services remotely through telehealth platforms. Each of these settings provides a unique environment that caters to different populations and mental health needs. Here’s a more detailed look at some of these settings.

  • Private Practice – Some mental health counselors work in private practice. This setting allows for a high degree of autonomy and the ability to focus on the types of issues or populations that the counselor finds most interesting.
  • Hospitals – Mental health counselors in hospitals work with patients who are hospitalized for a variety of reasons. They may provide crisis intervention, assess patients for mental health conditions, provide counseling to patients and their families, and work as part of a team to develop and implement treatment plans.
  • Community Mental Health Centers – Community centers provide services to individuals in a particular community, often focusing on those who are underserved or vulnerable. Counselors in these settings may provide individual and group counseling, crisis intervention, and case management services.
  • Residential Treatment Centers – Residential facilities provide care to individuals who need to live on-site for a period of time. This could include substance abuse rehabilitation centers, centers for adolescents with behavioral issues, or facilities for adults with severe mental illness. Counselors in these settings provide therapy and support to residents, and they may also provide family counseling and discharge planning.
  • Schools and Universities – Mental health counselors in educational settings work with students to address issues such as stress, anxiety, depression, and social and behavioral problems. They may provide one-on-one counseling, group counseling, crisis intervention, and workshops on mental health topics.
  • Correctional Facilities – In prisons and jails, mental health counselors work with inmates, addressing issues such as substance abuse, anger management, and the stress and mental health issues related to incarceration. They may also provide risk assessments and counseling for inmates who are about to be released.
  • Government Agencies – Mental health counselors can also work in various government agencies, providing services to military personnel, veterans, and government employees. These counselors may provide therapy, conduct assessments, and help individuals navigate systems and access other services.
  • Nonprofit Organizations – Many nonprofit organizations provide mental health services, and these can be great settings for mental health counselors. They may work with specific populations, like children in foster care, survivors of domestic violence, or homeless individuals.

This variety of settings allows mental health counselors to find a work environment that suits their career goals, personal interests, and preferred approach to care. It also means that, wherever there are people, there’s a potential place for a mental health counselor to make a difference.

Becoming a licensed mental health counselor is a journey that involves rigorous academic work, extensive clinical experience, and personal dedication. However, the reward of helping others achieve better mental health and a higher quality of life is immeasurable. It’s a career path that offers both personal fulfillment and the opportunity to make a significant impact on individuals and communities.

Counseling Career Guide

Still Looking for a Counseling Degree?

Here are some of the most popular online counseling programs. On each page you will find a detailed write-up of the program, specific courses, and schools that offer that program that are currently accepting applicants.

© 2024 Counseling Degrees Online | About | Schools by State | Privacy Policy & Terms